The progress of a society may be judged by the way in which it disposes of its human waste material, and thus by the quality of its sewerage system (Mumford 1961, chap. 8). In the ancient world, the Greeks and Romans put great emphasis upon town planning. Roman cities were famed for their sewers, drains, aqueducts, paved streets, and roads. Domestic plumbing ranged from marble bathrooms with under-floor heating and indoor toilets in upmarket villas to basic latrine provision for the Roman army, as found, for example, alongside Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain (Greed 2003). Following the decline of the Roman Empire, waste disposal returned to more primitive methods. Most ordinary people used an outdoor “privy,” while nobles often had an “indoor” toilet built out from the wall of their castle, hanging over the moat. In the Christian West during the Middle Ages, indoor plumbing, or for that matter personal hygiene and privacy, were not highly esteemed marks of civilization or progress, although washing and bathing, and bathhouses, were given higher priority in the Muslim East (Bonneville 1997).


 CON'T FROM COMMENTS EARLIER.  However,  the  installation took less than 3/4/ hour and was a basic regulator with no other function.  Looking up the price afterwards, invoice did not list type or price, it appears that it would have cost me around $60 for the regulator and another $15 or so for the additional supplies necessary to install it and it was really a rather simple job with easy access.    Given that, it seems that $300 for less that  an hours worth of on site work,  company says it does not include commute time in its prices, is a little high.  While flat rate quotes are nice, they must take into consideration situations where the work load differs depending on the circumstances.  Therefore, unless you are at the upper end of the harder work needed than the average job. it can be argued that my estimated price of $300 for labor was more than a little high.  Maybe I am wrong since I have not used their services for years and  am not knowledgeable of the costs of equipment and professional labor today.  
The easy to install reinforced Wax Toilet Bowl The easy to install reinforced Wax Toilet Bowl Gasket features a polyethylene flange for floor and wall bowls. Packaged in a plastic sleeve in order to maintain its shape. Accommodates 3 in. and 4 in. waste lines (sold separately). Includes a 1/4 in. x 2-1/4 in. E-Z Snap brass bolt ...  More + Product Details Close
Do you need a bathroom faucet in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire? Do you need a kitchen faucet repair in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire? A dependable faucet repair in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire use to be hard to find. Not anymore. An Option One plumber in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire is your local expert in all types of bathroom or sink faucet repairs and faucet installation in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire.
We live in a recently completed townhouse that was built with double-wall construction. That construction method was touted by the builder as what would keep sound from penetrating between the units. But we can hear the next door neighbors' TV and stereo, and sometimes voices and even snoring, through the wall. While sometimes it's the volume, mostly it's the bass sounds coming through the wall. They say they don't hear us, but we keep our bass turned down. They crank up the bass, and they are not going to change that. They also are not going to do anything construction-wise to help from their side. What is the best way for us to try to block the low frequency/bass sounds from penetrating the existing wall into our side?
Option One Plumbing & Rooter is now offering commercial hydro jetting in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire to our residential customers. Our process utilizes high-pressure water to effectively cut tree roots and emulsify grease. Sewer jetting is the application of streams of high-pressure water for use within pipes for cleaning & debris removal. Our experienced hydro jet plumbers in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire are local experts and all of work comes with a warranty.
 This was Roberts fourth visit to her home, each time for different services and Zach‘s first. As always Tiffany in the office as well as the rest of the staff are more than communicative prior to the visit and keep you up-to-date on the travel time of the technician. The technicians are friendly, intelligent, accommodating, and beyond respectful and neat. I highly recommend Atomic Plumbing for any residential or commercial needs and would like to thank them for their personalized attention to our home. 

In the United Kingdom the professional body is the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (educational charity status) and it is true that the trade still remains virtually ungoverned;[40] there are no systems in place to monitor or control the activities of unqualified plumbers or those home owners who choose to undertake installation and maintenance works themselves, despite the health and safety issues which arise from such works when they are undertaken incorrectly; see Health Aspects of Plumbing (HAP) published jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Plumbing Council (WPC).[41][42] WPC has subsequently appointed a representative to the World Health Organization to take forward various projects related to Health Aspects of Plumbing.[43]
When you run into any of these plumbing issues, it’s time for repairs. Who better to call than your local Mr. Rooter Plumbing? We are professional, caring, efficient, and courteous. You can depend on us day or night and always know we get the job done right! Our certified plumbers work around your needs and set up appointments based on your schedule. You can count on us to arrive on time and fix it right the first time. There’s a reason they call us Mr.®!
Honesty is important to all of our employees. One way that we stay honest with our customers is by providing straightforward, upfront pricing. While other plumbers in Phoenix, AZ may surprise you with hidden fees or unexpected add-ons, we never keep our pricing a secret from you. Our experienced technicians know what it takes to complete a job, and they’ll let you know the exact cost before they get started. If you have any questions or concerns, we’re more than happy to talk with you and answer all your questions. We also provide different financing options that can help make your next project be a little friendlier on your wallet. Just ask us about them.
Don’t flush floss, tampons, or even so-called “flushable” wipes. They don’t break down like toilet paper does and can come back to haunt you later. “Toilets are more water-efficient now than they were 20 years ago, so there sometimes isn’t enough volume in the flush to force debris down,” says Marcin Wroblewski, president of ExpressRooter Plumbing in Toronto. “An object will get lodged in the trap and cause blockage when waste builds up days later.”
In the United Kingdom the professional body is the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (educational charity status) and it is true that the trade still remains virtually ungoverned;[40] there are no systems in place to monitor or control the activities of unqualified plumbers or those home owners who choose to undertake installation and maintenance works themselves, despite the health and safety issues which arise from such works when they are undertaken incorrectly; see Health Aspects of Plumbing (HAP) published jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Plumbing Council (WPC).[41][42] WPC has subsequently appointed a representative to the World Health Organization to take forward various projects related to Health Aspects of Plumbing.[43]
Plumbers develop blueprints to plan where pipes and fixtures should be plotted in a structure. They also install and connect the piping and fixtures, either working individually or with a team of apprentices and pipefitters. In addition to facilitating water supply from pipes and large fixtures, such as bathtubs, showers, sinks and toilets, plumbers ensure that water reaches appliances like dishwashers and water heaters. The best in the occupation are strong problem-solvers who have mastered customer service and can meet the physical and mechanical demands of the job.
Need plumbing supplies? We've got everything you need to build an efficient system. Find ball valves for commercial and residential plumbing, filters, filter cartridges and fittings. Looking for an electric or gas hot water heater? We have hundreds, along with all the supplies you need to install them. We carry a complete line of bathroom fixtures, PVC and CPVC tubing. Get all of the industrial plumbing parts and supplies with our inventory.
Drain problems do happen and because of that A1 Columbia Plumbing is available around the clock to help with drain cleaning, tub/bathtub drain clogged up, kitchen sink clogged up, bathroom sink stopped up, toilet clogged up, floor drain stopped up, washer drain clogged up, shower drain clogged up, utility sink or lundry tub clogged up, garbage disposal drain clogged up, clogged drains or slow draining and drain cleaning. if you drain is stopped call A1 Columbia Plumbing for drain cleaning.
At Gold Medal Service, we have generations of experience providing industry-leading HVAC, electrical, and plumbing services in New Jersey. We're proud to have served more than 100,000 customers and counting, keeping homeowners safe and comfortable. We're available 24/7 to deliver exceptional service, with no extra charge for Saturday and Sunday calls. We are a Better Business Bureau Accredited Business with an A+ BBB rating, and we've been recognized by brands, publications, and satisfied customers for our outstanding service. When you choose Gold Medal Service as your contractor, you're making the smart choice for all of your heating, cooling, plumbing, and electrical needs.

Whatever your plumbing needs, BelRed has a solution. Our expert plumbers are on hand to assist with maintenance, service, and repair, or install water heaters, boilers, and other fixtures. Held to the same level of excellence as our heating and cooling systems are known for, our plumbing services and products can help prevent problems in the home before they occur.

This information is not intended as an offer to sell, or the solicitation of an offer to buy, a franchise. It is for information purposes only. Read More Currently, the following states regulate the offer and sale of franchises: California, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. If you are a resident of or want to locate a franchise in one of these states, we will not offer you a franchise unless and until we have complied with applicable pre-sale registration and disclosure requirements in your state. Read Less Mr. Rooter is a registered trademark of Mr. Rooter LLC Copyright © 2017 Mr. Rooter, All rights reserved. All Mr. Rooter Plumbing Franchise Locations Are Independently Owned And Operated.
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JAG PLUMBING PRODUCTS is very pleased to partner JAG PLUMBING PRODUCTS is very pleased to partner with BRIGGS Plumbing Products USA to act as the direct distributor of the prestigious BRIGGS and Sayco Brand line of Repair Parts. This 2-pack of Toilet tank flappers are the exact replacement required to fix your BRIGGS Toilet. JAG PLUMBING PRODUCTS strives ...  More + Product Details Close
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s. Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")[21] out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.[21]
Plumbers in Australia have licensing requirements that differ from state to state but it is generally accepted a 4-year apprenticeship with a further minimum experience of 2 years (6 years total) and a further curricular requirement as a benchmark for licensing. Licensed plumbers are also expected to maintain minimum relevant training requirements to maintain their plumbing license
If left unfixed, a running toilet or a leaky faucet can end up costing you hundreds of dollars. Check out your water bill and how your water is running. If you find your kitchen dripping non-stop and your water bill going higher, you may have a leak! Let Parker & Sons put a stop to those leaks. Our team of expert plumbers will make sure to get the work done faster, get it right the first time, and do it efficiently.
According to standards set by the federal government, a low-flow showerhead uses no more than 2.5 gallons of water per minute at a water pressure of 80 pounds per square inch. That’s less than half the rate of water used by some older traditional showerhead models. Low-flow showerheads come in two main types, aerating, which creates a mist, or laminar-flow that sends water out in a steady stream.
For Plumbers, working in the bustling city of Seattle has its advantages, including an above-average pay rate. Plumbers will also find cushy salaries in Boston (+31 percent), Chicago (+23 percent), New York (+19 percent), and Washington (+16 percent). Those in the field find the lowest salaries in Charlotte, 14 percent below the national average. Below-median salaries also turn up in Miami and Orlando (10 percent lower and 9 percent lower, respectively).
Since 1991, we have provided our customers with dependable plumbing services—everything from replacing or installing kitchen and bathroom faucets, water heaters, hose bibs, and ice makers to whole or partial house re-piping, installing pressure reducing valves (PRVs) to aid in water conservation efforts, repairing leaks in water lines, or providing all new plumbing for remodels, room additions, or new house construction. We charge by the job, not by the hour.
Those who attempted to bring plumbing indoors faced technical as well as attitudinal challenges. Decisions on how wastewater was removed required as much concern as those made to ensure an adequate water supply. But equally vexing was the prevailing miasma theory of disease, which held that illnesses stemmed from "bad air" that was readily identifiable by its offensive odor. This led to a distrust of early indoor plumbing that tended to leak and a deadly fear of the sewer gas that accompanied the leaks. It is no wonder then that many individuals maintained a strong belief that elimination was best taken care of out of doors.

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