Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.[1] Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications.[2] The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.[3]
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Journeyman plumber: Once the requirements of an apprenticeship are fulfilled, plumbers can apply for a journeyman license. Many workers in the plumbing industry are journeymen. Obtaining a journeyman's license requires a fee and the successful passing of an exam. Licenses vary by state, although not all areas require journeymen to be licensed. Instead, the amount of work they are able to perform is limited.
The introduction of the first water-retaining traps or seals in the 1850s, and the common use of "U"-shaped traps in the 1870s, were major steps forward. The design of the trap ensured that enough water remained in it to effectively block the passage of sewer gas back through the plumbing fixtures. During the 1870s vent pipes were introduced. They not only carried sewer gas out of the system, but also broke the suction created by movement of liquid in the pipes and eliminated the possibility of siphoning water that sealed the traps.
Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).[17]
Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid "joints" or flexible rolls. The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid "joint" or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing.[19]
Hi Kenneth, We would be happy to get you connected with a pro for your project. You can submit a service request on our website: http://www.homeadvisor.com/, or browse reviews for local water heater pros here: http://www.homeadvisor.com/c.html. We can also have a project advisor reach out to assist you if you send your contact information to [email protected] –HASupport
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When your plumbing system is not running smoothly, you need a reliable plumber there to assist you as quickly as possible. But you should also find an expert who can help you with all of your plumbing needs over time, whether you want to upgrade your fixtures or add in a new sump pump or water treatment system. Call our professionals whenever you run into urgent plumbing issues, and we can get out there fast to get your pipes and fixtures back in order. Magnolia Plumbing, Heating & Cooling is a trusted name in plumbing repair, installation, maintenance, and replacement in the Washington, DC area, and we can handle whatever plumbing tasks come our way—guaranteed!


The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.[3] The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes[4] and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths.[5] In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall".[6] Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.
Most typical single family home systems won't require supply piping larger than 3⁄4 inch (19 mm) due to expense as well as steel piping's tendency to become obstructed from internal rusting and mineral deposits forming on the inside of the pipe over time once the internal galvanizing zinc coating has degraded. In potable water distribution service, galvanized steel pipe has a service life of about 30 to 50 years, although it is not uncommon for it to be less in geographic areas with corrosive water contaminants.
We have used Atomic multiple times and every time they have done a phenomenal job! We've had 2 different plumbing specialist, both named Justin, and each have been wonderful and knowledgeable in helping us with our problems. Our most recent issue was a leaking service line. Atomic had Justin D. to my house at 7pm, and was able to schedule me for next day repairs! I will only use and recommend Atomic as my plumbing service!
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