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The progress of a society may be judged by the way in which it disposes of its human waste material, and thus by the quality of its sewerage system (Mumford 1961, chap. 8). In the ancient world, the Greeks and Romans put great emphasis upon town planning. Roman cities were famed for their sewers, drains, aqueducts, paved streets, and roads. Domestic plumbing ranged from marble bathrooms with under-floor heating and indoor toilets in upmarket villas to basic latrine provision for the Roman army, as found, for example, alongside Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain (Greed 2003). Following the decline of the Roman Empire, waste disposal returned to more primitive methods. Most ordinary people used an outdoor “privy,” while nobles often had an “indoor” toilet built out from the wall of their castle, hanging over the moat. In the Christian West during the Middle Ages, indoor plumbing, or for that matter personal hygiene and privacy, were not highly esteemed marks of civilization or progress, although washing and bathing, and bathhouses, were given higher priority in the Muslim East (Bonneville 1997).
late 14c. (from c.1100 as a surname), "a worker in any sort of lead" (roofs, gutters, pipes), from Old French plomier "lead-smelter" (Modern French plombier) and directly from Latin plumbarius "worker in lead," noun use of adjective meaning "pertaining to lead," from plumbum "lead" (see plumb (n.)). Meaning focused 19c. on "workman who installs pipes and fittings" as lead water pipes became the principal concern of the trade. In U.S. Nixon administration (1969-74), the name of a special unit for investigation of "leaks" of government secrets.

Whatever your preference and price point, there’s a tub to sooth. That’s, of course, if you want a bathtub. Many homeowners — particularly those who don’t have young children living with them — have thrown the tub out with the bath water in favor of installing a walk-in shower. Just make sure to consider the pros and cons of tub to shower conversions.


Of course, some repairs are easier and quicker to handle than others. Some are a major hassle—particularly those that involve working on pipes that are hidden behind walls or under floors or are otherwise difficult to access. This doesn’t mean you can’t do them yourself, it just means you may need a little more instruction, a few more tools, and a load of patience.
Alexa is an experienced lifestyle and news writer, currently working with Reader's Digest, Shape Magazine, and various other publications. She loves writing about her travels, health, wellness, home decor, food and drink, fashion, beauty, and scientific news. Follow her traveling adventures on Instagram: @living_by_lex, send her a message: [email protected], and check out her website: livingbylex.com
M and M, Heating & Cooling, Plumbing & Electrical offers swift, reliable plumbing and rooter services throughout Longmont, CO & surrounding areas. Our fully licensed and insured team of qualified plumbing professionals ensure efficient, dependable, and long-term performance from your plumbing system.  From water heater installation and repair, to drain cleaning and clog removal, there is no challenge we can’t resolve to your complete satisfaction.  Providing convenient and prompt scheduling, accurate diagnosis of any plumbing-related difficulties, and tidy job sites, we alleviate stress, mess, and aggravation, and deliver rewarding results.
If you have a major fix in your home, it’s important to shop around for a plumber to do the work. At least three bids will help you determine the range of the project, so you can weigh the pros and cons of price and the reputation of the plumbers. Get references and contact them. Also, a good plumber isn’t likely to nickel and dime you. For the smaller jobs, check out these 11 plumbing tricks.
Don R. is a “Superstar”! He quickly identified the outdated timer attached to our water that was malfunctioning, as it was making a very annoying grinding sound. He disconnected the timer and rerouted the power cable to the water heater. The problem was solved instantaneously. Moreover, Don had provided us with some useful information that we deemed valuable as well. Don, we truly appreciate your top notch service.P.S. You have restored peace back into my household.
When you need a plumber who can supply the knowledge, the skill, and the necessary equipment, you need Roto-Rooter. Homeowners trust Roto-Rooter to provide water heater installation. We can also install faucets, sinks, toilets, showers, and more. Schedule your appointment with your neighborhood plumber today. Our plumberswill always stand by their work and provide a customer satisfaction guarantee.
Here at Schuler Service we are always looking for ways to innovate for our customers. Our technicians have always been licensed, insured, and background checked but to provide our customers their peace of mind we have now partnered with TheSeal.com! You want your home to be safe and so do we. For more information on your local Allentown experts at Schuler Service click here or call us today at (610) 434-7103 for fast service and peace of mind.
The Delta 5 in. Hand shower Diverter Spout The Delta 5 in. Hand shower Diverter Spout in Chrome is a key component to a coordinated and multi-functional bath. As part of a company that delivers water every day through millions of faucets worldwide Delta provides a lifetime limited warranty on all parts to the original consumer. Delta is ...  More + Product Details Close
Ryan arrived on time with a positive attitude even though it was after hours on a Friday and did a great job. He quickly diagnosed and fixed the plumbing problem and answered several other questions I had regarding upgrades to bathroom fixtures. I was very impressed that Atomic was able to get a technician to my house within a few hours on a Friday night a few days before Christmas. Very professional organization and technician.
Alexa is an experienced lifestyle and news writer, currently working with Reader's Digest, Shape Magazine, and various other publications. She loves writing about her travels, health, wellness, home decor, food and drink, fashion, beauty, and scientific news. Follow her traveling adventures on Instagram: @living_by_lex, send her a message: [email protected], and check out her website: livingbylex.com
Homes have many combustion appliances, such as stoves, water heaters, fireplaces, furnaces, and boilers. Without proper ventilation, these appliances can create harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. Adequate ventilation is absolutely necessary in any home. For example, exhaust fans can play a pivotal role in clearing out harmful gases in bathrooms, cooking areas, and garages. They can keep the air clear of harmful moisture and fumes, while increasing your comfort by keeping humidity levels low.
The conventional water heater in your home has an important role. Making and keeping water hot. Advances in technology have allowed for more energy-efficient, electric, tank water heaters, as well as the creation of tankless water heaters that can produce a seemingly endless supply of hot water. The power sources include gas, propane, oil, and of course electricity. The newer water heater styles include solar and hybrid heat pumps.
Of course, some repairs are easier and quicker to handle than others. Some are a major hassle—particularly those that involve working on pipes that are hidden behind walls or under floors or are otherwise difficult to access. This doesn’t mean you can’t do them yourself, it just means you may need a little more instruction, a few more tools, and a load of patience.
Most states and localities require plumbers to be licensed. Although licensing requirements vary, most states and localities require workers to have 2 to 5 years of experience and to pass an exam that shows their knowledge of the trade and of local plumbing codes before they are permitted to work independently. In addition, most employers require plumbers to have a driver’s license.

When a plumbing emergency strikes, you need dependable and quick service from a licensed, reputable Dallas plumber. Regardless of whether your emergency is a burst pipe that is causing water to flood into your home, a sewer line clog resulting in a backup of wastewater, or a gas leak; you can rely on a fast response from the licensed professionals at Baker Brothers Plumbing, Air Conditioning & Electrical. Our technicians are on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Justin and Paul were extremely polite. They worked as quickly as they could and got my hot water heater replaced. I have two dogs that are a handful, and they learned their names and talked to them to help keep them calm, which meant a lot to me. I felt comfortable having them in my home. The customer service at the company was great as well, very helpful on the phone. I would recommend them.
The introduction of the first water-retaining traps or seals in the 1850s, and the common use of "U"-shaped traps in the 1870s, were major steps forward. The design of the trap ensured that enough water remained in it to effectively block the passage of sewer gas back through the plumbing fixtures. During the 1870s vent pipes were introduced. They not only carried sewer gas out of the system, but also broke the suction created by movement of liquid in the pipes and eliminated the possibility of siphoning water that sealed the traps.
“We had a toilet emergency one morning. After unsuccessful plunging efforts, we called Intelligent Service – and within 20 minutes, they were at our house. They found that the sewer line from our house to the street had snapped. Within 2 hours they had a permit and a backhoe in our front yard, and started work. By 5:00pm, we had water! They were extremely sympathetic to our situation. They were careful not to track snow and mud into the house. They cleaned up the area both inside and outside. Have already recommended the company to the many neighbors.”
Compartmentalization of production was marked by separate metal-manufacture companies specializing in lead piping, plumbing fixtures, and other nonporcelain components. Nowadays, international toilet companies such as Armitage Shanks, Ideal Standard, and Geberit have diversified to offer a wide range of toilet technologies and materials. Synthetic materials now predominate; piping is made of plastic and the “porcelain” is more likely to be polymer. Old and widely used lead piping has been condemned as a potential cause of poisoning. (Plumbing gets its name from plomb, the medieval word for lead, as plumbers were essentially lead workers.)
When you need a plumber who can supply the knowledge, the skill, and the necessary equipment, you need Roto-Rooter. Homeowners trust Roto-Rooter to provide water heater installation. We can also install faucets, sinks, toilets, showers, and more. Schedule your appointment with your neighborhood plumber today. Our plumberswill always stand by their work and provide a customer satisfaction guarantee.

Len The Plumber is a full service plumbing and drain cleaning company serving the entire Baltimore, Washington D.C., Northern Virginia, Delaware and the Philadelphia Area as well as Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, Harford, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George’s, Charles, Fairfax, Alexandria, Arlington, Loudoun, Prince William, Falls Church, Manassas, Delaware, Chester, New Castle, and Stafford counties. We are continuing to grow and expand our service areas so please continue to check-in to see if we are in your area and always feel free to call if you have a question. Our service area map shows all the counties and district that we currently serve.

Drain Rescue is definitely true to it's name. My drain was completely blocked and not at all functional when I called them. They asked if I needed someone to come out the same day (it was evening). I declined since it wasn't really an emergency, just a huge inconvenience. The plumber came out right on the time the next morning and had my drain fixed in about 30 minutes. The service was excellent and the price was reasonable. I would definitely recommend them to anyone needing a plumber.
Justin and Paul were extremely polite. They worked as quickly as they could and got my hot water heater replaced. I have two dogs that are a handful, and they learned their names and talked to them to help keep them calm, which meant a lot to me. I felt comfortable having them in my home. The customer service at the company was great as well, very helpful on the phone. I would recommend them.
While in the past, mains drainage and indoor plumbing were a sign of modernity, today people want “designer” bathrooms, luxury fixtures, power showers, fitted kitchens, and the latest technology. There has been a “restroom revolution” in Asia in particular, with companies such as Toto producing complete prefabricated bathroom units for the Japanese housing market, all the components being made together. Colored polyester resins, modern plastics, and marble and granite composites feature strongly in these modern bathroom modules (Greed 2003). Likewise, modern automatic public toilets are fully integrated, prefabricated systems that often use stainless steel and pathogen-resistant polymer materials. However, user-end toilet innovation must be matched by provider-end infrastructural sewerage system provision. The functionality of domestic toilets is dependent on there being a working sewerage system to take away output. Alternatively, the output from a luxury bathroom, as is the case in some affluent areas in developing countries, might end up in a cesspool under the house for collection by traditional night-soil operatives. Alternatively, as in some parts of the Americas and Australasia, even upmarket private houses are not served by a municipal sewerage and drainage system, and depend upon their own cesspits, generators, and water tanks.
If it’s a toilet issue you’ve got, you’re sure to find the right toilet parts and replacement pieces – including shutoff valves and supply lines – to get your toilet in tip-top shape. We’ve also got shower parts and shower valves, sink parts and faucet parts, as well as everything for bathtub repair – all to get your bathroom up and running in top-top shape.
If you own a home and your plumbing toolkit consists of a lone plunger, chances are sooner than later you’ll need to tap into the knowledge or advice from someone versed in common plumbing repairs. Ace can help you in a pinch. While a plunger can be handy in several different scenarios, Ace Hardware has the plumbing tools, plumbing supplies and knowledgeable plumbing advice on hand to face a plumbing problem head on.
Payment schedule: On a big job, especially a planned remodeling, the service provider may want the customer to pay 10 to 15 percent of the cost up front and 50 percent paid before the job is completed — especially if expensive materials need to be purchased for the project. Make sure you know what is expected. If you're suspicious, contact your state's professional licensing board or contracting board to ask about local standards. Many states set limits on what is allowed to be paid upfront.

Although plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters perform three distinct and specialized roles, their duties are often similar. For example, they all install pipes and fittings that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases. They determine the necessary materials for a job, connect pipes, and perform pressure tests to ensure that a pipe system is airtight and watertight. Their tools include drills, saws, welding torches, and wrenches.
Bob Carter started as with plumbers Indianapolis and moved his family to Greenwood in the late 1960’s.  He continued to do plumbing in Indianapolis and soon became a plumber in Greenwood as well.  Fast forward to today… Carter’s My Plumber is a 3rd Generation, family-owned Plumbing business operating from Greenwood, and serving the Indianapolis metro area. Son, Jamie and Grandson, Kelson now run the family business.
You'll want to make sure that whoever is working on your plumbing understands current building codes and has expert plumbing knowledge. Ask to see their trade license number as well as their registered business number. Asking to verify the dollar amounts of their bonding and insurance is also standard practice. Bonding and insurance helps protect you as the homeowner from accidents, injury, damage to property or unpaid work.
Apprentice plumber: Apprenticeship programs generally provide the most comprehensive training for novice plumbers. Either union locals and their affiliated companies or nonunion contractor organizations can administer this training. Apprenticeships typically consist of at least three to four years of paid, on-the-job training and some hours of related classroom instruction.
Ryan and Zach came quickly to my residence when the office scheduled them to come a day early to my pleasant surprise. They sharply dressed and very professional. They quickly diagnosed the kitchen faucet problem, brought the right tools to affect repairs and fixed the leak, I was impressed by their professionalism and teamwork. If I ever have another plumbing problem, Ryan and Zach performance convinced my to call Atomic next time.
As important as it is that you are able to distribute potable water throughout your home in a dependable manner, it would be a much less convenient state of affairs if you were not also able to dispose of that water just as conveniently, not to mention hygienically. That is why we suggest allowing our Master Plumbers to complete any and all drain and sewer services that you may require. From basic cleanings to complex repairs and eventual replacements, we truly do it all. If you have any reason to suspect a problem with your drain and sewer system, give us a call right away.
We are the plumber Jacksonville, FL residents continue to rely on. We provide plumbing repair & septic tank services for commercial, residential and industrial entities. Our plumbing services include: back flow, drain field and grease trap installation and repair; all lift station operations including installation & repair; pipeline video inspection, pipe jetting; septic tank installation, inspection, cleaning & pumping; sludge removal and many other plumbing works. In 2016, Metro-Rooter became a part of the Wind River Environmental group of companies, joining the nation’s largest non-hazardous liquid waste service providers!
Plumbers in Australia have licensing requirements that differ from state to state but it is generally accepted a 4-year apprenticeship with a further minimum experience of 2 years (6 years total) and a further curricular requirement as a benchmark for licensing. Licensed plumbers are also expected to maintain minimum relevant training requirements to maintain their plumbing license
Are you worried about the corrosion in your plumbing or have you had leaks in the past? Option One Plumbing in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire offers affordable solutions to re-plumbing your home with copper or alternatives that exceed today’s standards and last longer. If you are looking for an experienced repiping plumber in Phoenix, San Diego and the Inland Empire, look no further.
General employment within the construction sector is sensitive to changes in the economy. But job growth for plumbers is projected to be faster than the average for all jobs. New buildings and residences are being built to comply with stricter water efficiency standards and companies housed in older structures are hoping to retrofit to use more energy-efficient systems, so opportunities are in abundance. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there should be a hiring spurt of 16 percent for plumbers by the year 2026, which translates to about 75,800 new jobs.

When a plumbing emergency strikes, you need dependable and quick service from a licensed, reputable Dallas plumber. Regardless of whether your emergency is a burst pipe that is causing water to flood into your home, a sewer line clog resulting in a backup of wastewater, or a gas leak; you can rely on a fast response from the licensed professionals at Baker Brothers Plumbing, Air Conditioning & Electrical. Our technicians are on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.[14] This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.[15] Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.
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